Thursday, February 24, 2011

ADULTERATION DETECTION


Thanks:Mr.Elangovan Natarajan,Food Inspector
S.No
Food article
Adulteration
Test
1
Vegetable oil
Castor oil
Take 1 ml. of oil in a clean dry test tube. Add 10 ml. Of acidified petroleum ether. Shake vigorously for 2 minutes. Add 1 drop of Ammonium Molybdate reagent. The formation of turbidity indicates presence of Castor oil in the sample.


Argemone oil
Add 5 ml, conc. HNO3 ­­to 5 ml.sample. Shake carefully. Allow to separate yellow, orange yellow, crimson colour in the lower acid layer indicates adulteration.
2
Ghee
Mashed Potato
Sweet Potato, etc.
Boil 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Cool and a drop of iodine solution. Blue colour indicates presence of Starch.  colour disappears on boiling &  reappears on cooling.


Vanaspati
Take 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Add 5 ml. Of Hydrochloric acid and 0.4 ml of 2% furfural solution or sugar crystals. Insert the glass stopper and shake for 2 minutes. Development of a pink or red colour indicates presence of Vanaspati in Ghee.


Rancid stuff (old ghee)
Take one teaspoon of melted sample and 5 ml. Of HCl in a stoppered glass tube. Shake vigorously for 30 seconds. Add 5 ml. Of 0.1% of ether solution of Phloroglucinol. Restopper & shake for 30 seconds and allow to stand for 10 minutes. A pink or red colour in the lower(acid layer) indicates rancidity.


Synthetic Colouring Matter
Pour 2 gms. Of filtered fat dissolved in ether. Divide into 2 portions. Add 1 ml. Of HCl to one tube. Add 1 ml. Of 10% NaOH to the other tube. Shake well and allow to stand. Presence of pink colour in acidic solution or yellow colour in alkaline solution indicates added colouring matter.
3
Honey
Invert sugar/jaggery
1.      Fiehe’s Test: Add 5 ml. Of solvent ether to 5 ml. Of honey. Shake well and decant the ether layer in a petri dish. Evaporate completely by blowing the ether layer. Add 2 to 3 ml. Of resorcinol (1 gm. Of resorcinol resublimed in 5 ml. Of conc. HCl.) Appearance of cherry red colour indicates presence of sugar/jaggery.



2.      Aniline Chloride Test : Take 5 ml. Of honey in a porcelain dish. Add Aniline Chloride solution (3 ml of  Aniline and 7 ml. Of 1:3 HCl) and stir well. Orange red colour indicates presence of sugar.

4.
Pulses/Besan
Kesari dal(Lathyrus sativus)
Add 50 ml. Of dil.HCl to a small quantity of dal and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if developed indicates the presence of Kesari dal.
5
Pulses
Metanil Yellow(dye)
Add conc.HCl to a small quantity of dal in a little amount of water. Immediate development of pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow and similar colour dyes.


Lead Chromate
Shake 5 gm. Of pulse with 5 ml. Of water and add a few drops of HCl. Pink colour indicates Lead Chromate.
6
Bajra
Ergot infested Bajra
Swollen and black Ergot infested grains will turn light in weight and will float also in water
7
Wheat flour
Excessive sand & dirt
Shake a little quantity of sample with about 10 ml. Of Carbon tetra chloride and allow to stand. Grit and sandy matter will collect at the bottom.


Excessive bran
Sprinkle on water surface. Bran will float on the surface.


Chalk powder
Shake sample with dil.HCl Effervescence indicates chalk.
8
Common spices like Turmeric, chilly, curry powder,etc.
Colour
Extract the sample with Petroleum ether and add 13N H2SO4 to the extract. Appearance of red colour (which persists even upon adding  little distilled water) indicates the presence of added colours. However, if the colour disappears upon adding distilled water the sample is not adulterated.
9
Black Pepper
Papaya seeds/light berries, etc.
Pour the seeds in a beaker containing Carbon tetra-chloride. Black papaya seeds float on the top while the pure black pepper seeds settle down.
10
Spices(Ground)
Powdered bran and saw dust
Sprinkle on water surface. Powdered bran and sawdust float on the surface.
11
Coriander powder
Dung powder
Soak in water. Dung will float and can be easily detected by its foul smell.


Common salt
To 5 ml. Of sample add a few drops of silver nitrate. White precipitate indicates adulteration.
12
Chillies
Brick powder grit, sand, dirt, filth, etc.
Pour the sample in a beaker containing a mixture of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Brick powder and grit will settle at the bottom.
13
Badi Elaichi seeds

Choti Elaichi seeds

Separate out the seeds by physical examination. The seeds of Badi Elaichi have nearly plain surface without wrinkles or streaks while seeds of cardamom have pitted or wrinkled ends.
14
Turmeric Powder
Starch of maize, wheat, tapioca, rice
A microscopic study reveals that only pure turmeric is yellow coloured, big in size and has an angular structure. While foreign/added starches are colourless and small in size as compared to pure turmeric starch.
15
Turmeric
Lead Chromate
Ash the sample. Dissolve it in 1:7 Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and filter. Add 1 or 2 drops of 0.1% dipenylcarbazide. A pink colour indicates presence of Lead Chromate.


Metanil Yellow
Add few drops of conc.Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to sample. Instant appearance of violet colour, which disappears on dilution with water, indicates pure turmeric. If colour persists Metanil yellow is present.
16
Cumin seeds
(Black jeera)
Grass seeds coloured with charcoal dust
Rub the cumin seeds on palms. If palms turn black adulteration in indicated.
17
Asafoetida(Heeng)
Soap stone, other earthy matter
Shake a little quantity of powdered sample with water. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle at the bottom.


Chalk
Shake sample with Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Asafoetida will settle down. Decant the top layer and add dil.HCl to the residue. Effervescence shows presence of  chalk.
18
Foodgrains
Hidden insect infestation
Take a filter paper impregnated with Ninhydrin (1% in alcohol.) Put some grains on it and then fold the filter paper and crush the grains with hammer. Spots of bluish purple colour indicate presence of hidden insects infestation

Friday, February 18, 2011

WET IDLI DOSA BATTER RAIDS.

                                  
                           Dosa and idli inevitably find their way into the south Indian breakfast menu.  We were preparing them in stoneware instruments called “Ural” till last two decades. Then came the wet grinders, table-toop grinders and many more sophisticated grinders. When we started using the refrigerators, we used to store the batter prepared in wet grinders, for a week too. There began the problem.

Sunday, February 13, 2011

PUNISHED FOR ADULTERATION

THE HINDU-13.02.11
                                   Salt  is an unavoidable ingredient in our food. We add the salt, to impart taste to our food. Basically, salt contains Sodium Chloride. Iodine is added to it, as a nutritional substitute. Iodine added to salt when consumed, prevents Goitre in children. 

Thursday, February 10, 2011

SYNTHETIC FOOD COLOURS AND ITS SERIOUS ILL-EFFECTS.

 SYNTHETIC FOOD COLOURS -Synthetic food colours impart colour and attraction on the food items. (Eg: Jangiri will be orange coloured).
                                    Natural Food Colours                                       
                                     Beta-carotene 
                                     Chlorophyll
                                     Riboflavin
                                     Caramel
                                     Annato
                                     Saffron
                                     Curcumin(or Turmeric)
                        are some natural food colours allowed for use in food stuffs.

Saturday, February 5, 2011

HONOURABLE HIGH COURT JUDGEMENT IN FAVOUR OF PROSECUTION

Hyderabad Beverages Private ... vs State Of A.P. on 18 April, 2006 
Equivalent citations: 2006 CriLJ 3988
Bench: R Ranganathan
ORDER
Ramesh Ranganathan, J.
1. Common questions arise for consideration in Criminal Petition Nos. 4325 of 2003, 3701 of 2004, 3856 of 2005, and 1007 of 2003, as to whether delay, in furnishing a copy of the analyst report beyond the "Best Before" date or the expiry date of the shelf life of the product, could, by itself, be said to have resulted in the accused being denied the opportunity of sending the sample for analysis to the Central Food/ Seeds Laboratory, and in their suffering prejudice thereby. While Crl. P. No. 4325 of 2003 and Crl. P. No. 1007 of 2003 arise under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. Crl. P. No. 3701 of 2004 and Crl. No. 3856 of 2005 arise under the Seeds Act.
Crl. P. No. 4325 of 2003:

Friday, February 4, 2011

CAPACITY BUILDING OF FOOD SAFETY PERSONNEL.

                                Recently, Dr.Jitendra P. Dongare, FSSAI, has sent a mail to many food safety implementing officials asking for suggestions regarding the proposed trainning program for the food safety personnel. I reproduce the same below for the purpose of  information and for suggestions.
                               "THIS SHOWS THEIR INTEREST AND TRUST ON US. 
                                   LET US TUNE OURSELVES TO BETTER PERFORMANCE.
                                     BE PROUD TO BE A FOOD SAFETY OFFICER
                                         BE READY TO SERVE THE NATION BETTER"