Thursday, February 24, 2011

ADULTERATION DETECTION


Thanks:Mr.Elangovan Natarajan,Food Inspector
S.No
Food article
Adulteration
Test
1
Vegetable oil
Castor oil
Take 1 ml. of oil in a clean dry test tube. Add 10 ml. Of acidified petroleum ether. Shake vigorously for 2 minutes. Add 1 drop of Ammonium Molybdate reagent. The formation of turbidity indicates presence of Castor oil in the sample.


Argemone oil
Add 5 ml, conc. HNO3 ­­to 5 ml.sample. Shake carefully. Allow to separate yellow, orange yellow, crimson colour in the lower acid layer indicates adulteration.
2
Ghee
Mashed Potato
Sweet Potato, etc.
Boil 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Cool and a drop of iodine solution. Blue colour indicates presence of Starch.  colour disappears on boiling &  reappears on cooling.


Vanaspati
Take 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Add 5 ml. Of Hydrochloric acid and 0.4 ml of 2% furfural solution or sugar crystals. Insert the glass stopper and shake for 2 minutes. Development of a pink or red colour indicates presence of Vanaspati in Ghee.


Rancid stuff (old ghee)
Take one teaspoon of melted sample and 5 ml. Of HCl in a stoppered glass tube. Shake vigorously for 30 seconds. Add 5 ml. Of 0.1% of ether solution of Phloroglucinol. Restopper & shake for 30 seconds and allow to stand for 10 minutes. A pink or red colour in the lower(acid layer) indicates rancidity.


Synthetic Colouring Matter
Pour 2 gms. Of filtered fat dissolved in ether. Divide into 2 portions. Add 1 ml. Of HCl to one tube. Add 1 ml. Of 10% NaOH to the other tube. Shake well and allow to stand. Presence of pink colour in acidic solution or yellow colour in alkaline solution indicates added colouring matter.
3
Honey
Invert sugar/jaggery
1.      Fiehe’s Test: Add 5 ml. Of solvent ether to 5 ml. Of honey. Shake well and decant the ether layer in a petri dish. Evaporate completely by blowing the ether layer. Add 2 to 3 ml. Of resorcinol (1 gm. Of resorcinol resublimed in 5 ml. Of conc. HCl.) Appearance of cherry red colour indicates presence of sugar/jaggery.



2.      Aniline Chloride Test : Take 5 ml. Of honey in a porcelain dish. Add Aniline Chloride solution (3 ml of  Aniline and 7 ml. Of 1:3 HCl) and stir well. Orange red colour indicates presence of sugar.

4.
Pulses/Besan
Kesari dal(Lathyrus sativus)
Add 50 ml. Of dil.HCl to a small quantity of dal and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if developed indicates the presence of Kesari dal.
5
Pulses
Metanil Yellow(dye)
Add conc.HCl to a small quantity of dal in a little amount of water. Immediate development of pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow and similar colour dyes.


Lead Chromate
Shake 5 gm. Of pulse with 5 ml. Of water and add a few drops of HCl. Pink colour indicates Lead Chromate.
6
Bajra
Ergot infested Bajra
Swollen and black Ergot infested grains will turn light in weight and will float also in water
7
Wheat flour
Excessive sand & dirt
Shake a little quantity of sample with about 10 ml. Of Carbon tetra chloride and allow to stand. Grit and sandy matter will collect at the bottom.


Excessive bran
Sprinkle on water surface. Bran will float on the surface.


Chalk powder
Shake sample with dil.HCl Effervescence indicates chalk.
8
Common spices like Turmeric, chilly, curry powder,etc.
Colour
Extract the sample with Petroleum ether and add 13N H2SO4 to the extract. Appearance of red colour (which persists even upon adding  little distilled water) indicates the presence of added colours. However, if the colour disappears upon adding distilled water the sample is not adulterated.
9
Black Pepper
Papaya seeds/light berries, etc.
Pour the seeds in a beaker containing Carbon tetra-chloride. Black papaya seeds float on the top while the pure black pepper seeds settle down.
10
Spices(Ground)
Powdered bran and saw dust
Sprinkle on water surface. Powdered bran and sawdust float on the surface.
11
Coriander powder
Dung powder
Soak in water. Dung will float and can be easily detected by its foul smell.


Common salt
To 5 ml. Of sample add a few drops of silver nitrate. White precipitate indicates adulteration.
12
Chillies
Brick powder grit, sand, dirt, filth, etc.
Pour the sample in a beaker containing a mixture of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Brick powder and grit will settle at the bottom.
13
Badi Elaichi seeds

Choti Elaichi seeds

Separate out the seeds by physical examination. The seeds of Badi Elaichi have nearly plain surface without wrinkles or streaks while seeds of cardamom have pitted or wrinkled ends.
14
Turmeric Powder
Starch of maize, wheat, tapioca, rice
A microscopic study reveals that only pure turmeric is yellow coloured, big in size and has an angular structure. While foreign/added starches are colourless and small in size as compared to pure turmeric starch.
15
Turmeric
Lead Chromate
Ash the sample. Dissolve it in 1:7 Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and filter. Add 1 or 2 drops of 0.1% dipenylcarbazide. A pink colour indicates presence of Lead Chromate.


Metanil Yellow
Add few drops of conc.Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to sample. Instant appearance of violet colour, which disappears on dilution with water, indicates pure turmeric. If colour persists Metanil yellow is present.
16
Cumin seeds
(Black jeera)
Grass seeds coloured with charcoal dust
Rub the cumin seeds on palms. If palms turn black adulteration in indicated.
17
Asafoetida(Heeng)
Soap stone, other earthy matter
Shake a little quantity of powdered sample with water. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle at the bottom.


Chalk
Shake sample with Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Asafoetida will settle down. Decant the top layer and add dil.HCl to the residue. Effervescence shows presence of  chalk.
18
Foodgrains
Hidden insect infestation
Take a filter paper impregnated with Ninhydrin (1% in alcohol.) Put some grains on it and then fold the filter paper and crush the grains with hammer. Spots of bluish purple colour indicate presence of hidden insects infestation

4 comments:

sakthi said...

very useful.thanks to both of you.

FOOD said...

Thanks Sakthi. You can also participate.

MITRAVINDA said...

This information on food adulteration detection methods is really good.I found the following detection methods of asafoetida @ http://www.foodadulterationinfo.com/
Asafoetida is adulterated with substances like Resin, Color, soap stone, starch, and chalk. Take small amount of sample and add little water and shake gently. Pure Asafoetida dissolves in water and appears as milky white, if it is adulterated the solution appears to be colored. In the same way if the sample is adulterated with soapstone, when mixed with water, the matter will settle down. Another simple method to detect purity, take small amount of sample on the tip of the fork and place it on the flame of a spirit lamp .Asafoetida burns quickly gives bright flame and impurities are left out. For the detection of starch add tincture of iodine to asafoetida solution. Indication of blue color shows the presence of starch.

vectron said...

FSOs should be equipped with a standard kit while inspecting Food Business Operators premises to detect and confirm adulterations.